We are pleased to sponsor the following lectures related to Yinyuan/Ingen and his Ōbaku tradition. The first lecture will start on May 3, 2022 and the rest will be arranged in the beginning of each month during the fall semester. Please follow us and select the group Obaku Ingen Events to receive more updates.
May 3, 2022
Jiang Wu: Chinese Zen Master Yinyuan/Ingen in Global East Asia
In 1654 Zen Master Yinyuan traveled from China to Japan. Seven years later his monastery, Manpukuji, was built and he had founded a new tradition, called Obaku. In this talk, Jiang Wu tells the story of the tremendous obstacles faced by Yinyuan, drawing parallels between his experiences and the broader political and cultural context in which he lived. Yinyuan claimed to have inherited the “Authentic Transmission of the Linji Sect.” After arriving in Japan, he was able to persuade the Shogun to build a new Ming-style monastery for the establishment of his Obaku school. His arrival in Japan coincided with a series of historical developments, including the Ming-Qing transition, the consolidation of early Tokugawa power, the growth of Nagasaki trade, and rising Japanese interests in Chinese learning and artistic pursuits. While Yinyuan‘s travel is known in scholarly circles, the significance of his journey within East Asian history has not been fully explored. This talk provides a unique opportunity to reexamine the crisis in the continent and responses from other parts of East Asia.
Elizabeth Sharf: How to Read Ingen’s Portraits
The abbot of a Chan/Zen monastery was regarded ex officio as a living Buddha around whom revolved the religious, social, and institutional life of the monastery. The Chinese Ōbaku abbots, in early modern Japan, were, moreover, the living embodiments of southern Chinese literati culture in Japan; they were agents for the transmission of the scientific, technological, religious, and artistic achievements of the late Ming and early Qing. As such, their portraits partook of their charisma and were highly esteemed objects of religious devotion. In this lecture, I will give an introductory overview of portrait paintings of the most renowned Ōbaku abbots, with special reference to images of Ingen, the lineage’s versatile and venerable founder.
Harald Conrad: A Collector’s Reflection on the Appreciation, Understanding and Authentication of Ōbaku Zen Calligraphy
As a collector of Japanese calligraphy, I will address in this talk, which is primarily aimed at a Western audience, first issues around the appreciation of Japanese calligraphy in general and then of Ōbaku Zen calligraphy in particular. In the arts of China and Japan, calligraphy has historically ranked highest among the arts. Due to the pictographic and expressive qualities of the Chinese script, its hand-written form captures not only literary meaning, but is believed to be a deep reflection of the writer’s mind. While critically examining this notion, I plan to address a number of questions: Is it possible for a Western audience to ‘understand’ Japanese calligraphy? Which impact did Ōbaku Zen calligraphy have on the Japanese calligraphic tradition? Why is Ōbaku Zen calligraphy nowadays comparatively popular among Western collectors, but less so in Japan? What are pertinent questions of authenticity around Ōbaku Zen calligraphy?
Patricia Graham: Ōbaku and Sencha
Sencha (unfermented green leaf tea), prepared by steeping tea leaves in a porcelain or stoneware teapot with boiled water and served in tiny cups, is a ubiquitous beverage in Japan. It also features in a less well-known formal tea ritual. Its drinking and domestic processing is a relatively recent development whose origin can be traced to both ritual and informal tea-drinking customs of Chinese monks at Japan’s Ōbaku Zen temples. According to an account by a Jesuit monk in Japan in the late sixteenth century, sencha was already being drunk then by Chinese traders in residence in Nagasaki, which was very soon after processing techniques for it had been perfected in China. Yet fine sencha only became a beverage of regular consumption in Japan from the early-eighteenth century when it was first domestically cultivated. Extensive Japanese tea production quickly followed increased demands for the beverage due to successful promotion of its benefits by the emigrant Chinese Ōbaku monks and their Japanese disciples and lay followers. I have written extensively elsewhere about the development of the sencha tea ceremony, its role in facilitating the dissemination of Chinese cultural values to the broader populace, and the sociocultural mechanisms that facilitated its trajectory from a pastime of a small, elite group of Sinophile scholars into a formal tea ritual that is still practiced in Japan today. Here I aim to introduce the central role Ōbaku monks held in nurturing appreciation for sencha and its concomitant philosophical and aesthetic values in Japan, from the introduction of the beverage, to its dissemination, formalization, and apotheosis in the early-twentieth century as a legitimate, native Japanese tea ceremony tradition.
James Baskind: Prognosticating the Past: Yinyuan Longqi, Chen Tuan, and Emperor Reigen, through the lens of the Obaku Text, Tōzuihen
It would be hard to overlook the arrival of the Chinese Obaku monks in mid-seventeenth century Japan in a consideration of the seminal events in the cultural history of the Edo Period (1603-1868). The Tokugawa bakufu policy of Sakokuprohibited travel to the Continent, so the Obaku monks became the local custodians of the cultural cachet of China. This proved to be a valuable asset when the Obaku school’s fortunes waned after the death of Yinyuan, in 1673, and further with the death in 1680 of the school’s two strongest patrons, Emperor Go-Mizunoo and Tokugawa Ietsuna. It is my contention that the Obaku monks in this period attempted to forge a connection to the imperial house by making strategic use of a text called the Tōzuihen (The Peach Bud Collection) in which an immortal 仙 named Chen 陳 is said to have presaged Yinyuan’s arrival in Japan and asserted that it would correspond to the birth of a new emperor, retrospectively interpreted to be Emperor Reigen (1654-1732; r. 1663-1687). This text represents an instance of the appropriation of a Daoist figure to the Obaku school’s pragmatic ends, something achievable precisely because of their “ownership” of Chinese cultural assets. In this context, we will consider how the Obaku monks used this instance of spirit writing as textual authority, lineage discourse, and cultural asset to forge a new connection to the Japanese imperial house in a difficult time.